About Us



4D Bio3 is advised by a Federal Strategic Council (FSC), which helps to shape the goals, vision, and strategic mission of the program. The FSC is comprised of members from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Defense Health Programs (DHP) / Defense Health Affairs (DHA), United States Army Medical Research and Material Command (USAMRMC), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Uniformed Services University (USU), Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC), and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), who were in attendance at the inaugural meeting held in June 2017.  Dr. Brad Ringeisen, Deputy Director of the Biological Technologies Office at DARPA, has been selected as the inaugural Chair of the FSC.

Federal Strategic Council

Vincent B. Ho, MD, MBAVincent B. Ho, MD, MBA
Chair and Professor
Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Chief, Department of Radiology
Walter Reed National Military Medical Cente

Dr. Vincent B. Ho is Chair and Professor, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) that consists of 9 billeted and 210 non-billeted civilian and uniformed faculty members. In 2009, Dr. Ho was selected as Integrated Chief and led the integration of Radiology Departments of the National Naval Medical Center and Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Since its creation in 2011, he has served as Chief of Radiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and is responsible for 5 clinical services (Diagnostic Radiology, Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, Interventional Radiology, and 3D Medical Applications), 2 divisions (Medical Physics, and Picture Archival and Communications) and 7 training programs.

Dr. Ho has spent the past 3 decades as a physician serving military beneficiaries.  He attended the University of Michigan for both his undergraduate and medical school education and was a recipient of a 4-year U.S. Army Health Professionals Scholarship. In 1987, he entered the Army as a transitional intern at Walter Reed where he subsequently completed his Diagnostic Radiology Residency in 1992.  Following completion of his residency, Dr. Ho was assigned to Madigan Army Medical Center and was a founding faculty member for its new diagnostic radiology residency program which continues to this day. In 1996, he separated from the Army and joined USU. Dr. Ho’s academic interests are in advanced imaging and 3D medical applications.  Dr. Ho has 18 US patents and his current research focuses on the development of novel non-invasive methods for vascular imaging, tissue characterization, functional assessment, image-guided therapy/drug delivery, and most recently 4D bioprinting. 

Bradley Ringeisen, PhDBradley Ringeisen. PhD
Deputy Director, Biological Technologies Office
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Dr. Brad Ringeisen received a Doctor of Philosophy in physical chemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Bachelor of Science in chemistry from Wake Forest University. He joined DARPA as the Deputy Director of BTO in December 2016. Before coming to DARPA, Dr. Ringeisen was the Head of the Bioenergy and Biofabrication Section at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) where he oversaw diverse research programs including the development and application of laser-assisted printing approaches to biology, development of organs-on-a-chip, microbial energy harvesting and extracellular electron transfer as well as microbial discovery and microbiome characterization. His personal research focused on using a variety of novel laser-based processing tools to deposit patterns and 3D structures of biological materials including living cells, fixed tissue, solid-phase environmental samples, and biopolymers. He was also the Chief Technology Officer for the DoD’s Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Manufacturing Innovation Institute. From 2012 to 2014, Dr. Ringeisen was detailed at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Joint Science and Technology Office as a science and technology manager, where he oversaw the development of field-forward diagnostic technology with wireless connectivity to the cloud.

Dr. Ringeisen has been a pioneer in the field of live cell printing, having demonstrated the first living bacteria and mammalian cell printing experiment using modified laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technology in the early 2000s. He has published over 65 peer-reviewed manuscripts and has edited a book on cell and organ printing. Throughout his career he has worked across the DoD research enterprise having performed research for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), DARPA and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) in addition to his internal programs at NRL. Dr. Ringeisen was named the DoD Lab Scientist of the Quarter in December 2015 for his achievements in applying bioprinting to the fields of tissue engineering and microbial ecology.

Bruce Doll, DDS, PhD, MBABruce Doll, DDS, PhD, MBA
Assistant Vice President for Technological Research and Innovation
Office of Research at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Dr. Bruce Doll is the Assistant Vice President for Technological Research and Innovation, Office of Research at the USU in Bethesda, Maryland.  He leads the development and integration of database management within the research portfolio and the advancement of novel technologies focused upon military medical requirements.  His formal education includes a DDS from SUNY Buffalo, Periodontics specialty certificate from Navy Postgraduate Dental School, PhD from Penn State, and MBA from the Navy Postgraduate School. During 34 years of service with the US Navy, he served with both the Navy and US Marine Corps, INCONUS and OCONUS. Several times deployed, RADM Doll completed his service as both Director, Research, Development and Acquisition Directorate for the DHA in Falls Church, VA and the Deputy Commander, US Army Medical Research and Material Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland overseeing execution of Defense Health Program funded medical research.  He has had academic appointments with Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh, Oregon Health Sciences University, University of Maryland, Pennsylvania State University and Rutgers University prior to coming to USU.  He served as the COO for the Rutgers – Cleveland Clinic Consortium for the Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. He has served on several scientific boards. He has publ ished on the topics of bone regeneration and is a former grantee of the NIH and NIST.

Keith R. Vesely, DVM, PhDKeith R. Vesely, DVM, PhD
Deputy, Defense Health Program
(Research, Development, Test and Evaluation)
US Army Medical Research and Materiel Comman

Dr. Keith R. Vesely attended Colorado State University, earning a Bachelor of Science Degree in Microbiology in 1975 and a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Degree in 1983.  He was selected for the Army Medical Department Long-Term Civilian Training Program, receiving a PhD in Comparative Pathology from the University of California, Davis in 1997.  Dr. Vesely is a Diplomate in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. Military education includes: the Army Medical Department Officer Basic and Advanced Courses; the Army Medical Department Officer Orientation (Veterinary Corps) Course; the Command and General Staff Officer Course; the Medical Defense against Biological Warfare Agents Course; and the Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Course.  He is a member of the Army Acquisition Corps.  Dr. Vesely is Level III Acquisition Certified in the functional specialties of Science and Technology Manager and Program Management.

Dr. Vesely's awards and decorations include the Superior Civilian Service Award, the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal with 1 Oak Leaf Cluster, the Meritorious Service Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters, the Army Commendation Medal with 1 Oak Leaf Cluster, the Army Achievement Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters, the Joint Meritorious Unit Award and the Expert Field Medical Badge.  Dr. Vesely also earned the US Army Surgeon General’s “9A” designator for medical proficiency in Comparative Veterinary Medicine and is a member of the Order of Military Medical Merit.

Russell Kirk Pirlo, PhDRussell Kirk Pirlo, PhD
Biological Scientist, Naval Research Laboratory
Government Chief Technology Officer
Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Manufacturing Innovation Institute 

Dr. Russell Kirk Pirlo earned a Bachelor of Science in Physics from West Virginia University and a PhD in Bioengineering from Clemson University, where he developed a single cell laser patterning instrument and micro-culturing devices to direct neurite outgrowth from neurons. His postdoctoral work at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory focused on the development of substrate materials, processes and CAM software for bioprinting with Biological Laser Printing (BioLP) and Biopapers.  He continued his career at NRL as a Research Biologist and further developed novel bioprinting substrates and modular bioreactor systems as the PI on a program building model human lung and brain tissues for DoD-funded biomarker/bio-threat research. Recently, has developed and patented thin sheets of biodegradable and biocompatible biopapers that can be inserted into BioLP for subsequent printing of cells and biofactors. Stacking of several printed biopapers creates heterogeneous 3D tissues unique to the tissue engineering community and has the ability to mimic a diverse array of human barrier tissues. This approach to printing complex cellular interfaces onto layers of biopapers is unique in the tissue engineering community. He is currently serving as the government CTO for BioFabUSA, the DOD manufacturing innovation institute focused on biofabrication of advanced tissue products.

Lieutenant Commander James Coburn, MSLCDR James Coburn, MS
Sr. Research Engineer
Food and Drug Administration

LCDR James Coburn is a Senior Researcher in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiologic Health (CDRH).  He received his Master’s degree from Brown University in Mechanical Engineering, while working in orthopedic biomechanics research.  He then worked in tissue engineering and clinical research laboratories before joining the FDA in 2009.  LCDR Coburn now performs research on patient-based design factors as well as manufacturing variability with advanced manufacturing methods such as 3D printing.  He also performs research and reviews in human factors and rehabilitation devices, using advanced computing, motion capture, and virtual reality to assist patient recovery.  His work in metrics and considerations for device evaluation has helped inform Agency Guidance and International Consensus Standards.  In addition to research, LCDR Coburn focuses on outreach to industry and consumer stakeholder groups in emerging and innovative technologies. Recently, he led an interagency team developing events for the White House National Week of Making.  LCDR Coburn currently leads the Agency’s Additive Manufacturing Core Facility, is the FDA’s Technical representative to America Makes – the national accelerator for 3D printing, and is co-chair of the Agency’s Additive Manufacturing Working Group.

Colonel Teresa Brininger, PhDCOL Teresa Brininger, PhD Director
Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine Research Program
US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

COL Teresa Brininger earned a PhD in Rehabilitation Science from the University of Pittsburgh. She has held a variety of assignments in the US Army and has served on multiple interagency strategic planning committees and government oversight committees for major rehabilitation, regenerative medicine and traumatic brain injury research initiatives. Currently she serves as the Director of the Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine Research Program and is responsible for overseeing the planning, budgeting and execution of Army, Defense Health Program and Congressional Special Interest funds directed toward investigating strategies to repair catastrophic wounds, improve pain management, maximizing return to duty rates and improving overall quality of life for Service Members who have sustained traumatic injuries. 

Scott Jackson, PhDScott Jackson, PhD
Group Leader, Complex Microbial Systems Group
US National Institute of Standards and Technology

Dr. Scott Jackson joined NIST in May of 2014 after 11 years as a principal investigator with the FDA.  At FDA, his research focused on characterizing the global genomic diversity of enteric pathogens, with applications for bioforensics and public health.  At NIST, Scott is currently the leader of the Complex Microbial Systems Group in the Biosystems and Biomaterials Division.  In this current role, Scott is leading efforts to improve microbiome and metagenomic measurements by organizing inter-lab studies, developing reference materials and reference methods, and developing in vitro tools that allow us to better understand microbial community resilience and evolution.  Scott performed his PhD dissertation research at Johns Hopkins University and The University of Maryland where he focused on the evolution of mobile genetic elements.

Jonathan S. Miller, PhD, JDJoathan Miller, PhD, JD
Deputy, Defense Health Program
Office of the Principal Assistant (Research and Technology)
US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

Dr. Jonathan S. Miller is currently the Deputy, Defense Health Program (Research and Technology) at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), Fort Detrick, MD.  In this role, Dr. Miller assists the Deputy, Defense Health Program (Research, Development, Test and Evaluation) in ensuring that Defense Health Program medical research and development investments align with Military Health System policies and strategic goals and objectives.  Dr. Miller supports the oversight of planning, programming, budgeting, and execution activities for the Defense Health Program Research, Development, Test and Evaluation appropriation executed by USAMRMC in the areas of combat casualty care, clinical and rehabilitative medicine, military infectious diseases, operational medicine, medical simulation and information sciences, and radiation health effects.  In addition, Dr. Miller serves as the science and technology lead to develop operational strategies for the use and execution of other transaction agreements to increase public-private partnerships and resource sharing.

Dr. Miller’s scientific research focused on the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of drugs of abuse.  His research has been published in several peer-reviewed scientific journals.  In addition, Dr. Miller has published his legal research focused on biobanking, human subjects research protection, privacy law, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations in peer-reviewed law journals.  Dr. Miller received a B.S. in Nutrition from LaSalle University (2002), M.S. in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology from Georgetown University (2004), Ph.D. in Pharmacology from Temple University School of Medicine (2009), and a J.D. from the University of Maryland, Francis King Carey School of Law (2014).  He is licensed to practice law in Maryland.

Michele J. Grimm, PhDMichele J. Grimm, PhD
Program Director for the Engineering of Biomedical Systems (EBMS)
and Disability and Rehabilitation Engineering (DARE) Programs
National Science Foundation

Dr. Grimm remains on faculty in the Department of Biomedical Engineering in the College of Engineering at Wayne State, where she also holds an adjunct appointment in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in the School of Medicine.

Dr. Michele J. Grimm completed her B.S. in Biomedical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at The Johns Hopkins University in 1990 and her Ph.D. in Bioengineering at the University of Pennsylvania in 1994. Her graduate work focused on orthopaedic biomechanics, and this carried over to her roles at Wayne State, where she served as Director of Orthopaedic Biomechanics for the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery from 1997 through 2010.  Since joining Wayne State in 1994, a significant portion of her research has involved injury biomechanics – from characterizing important tissue properties to developing appropriate models for the assessment of injury mechanisms.  For the past 15 years, that work has focused on the biomechanics of neonatal brachial plexus injuries.  She has had the privilege of working with obstetricians to develop computer models of a process for which patient-based clinical studies are not appropriate. The work has provided an understanding of the pathomechanics of this injury, supporting the results that have been found through epidemiological and case study based research.  She recently served on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Task Force on Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy, which was charged with compiling the current state of evidence in the area of NBPP (with a focus on the cause of the injury) and identifying key gaps in knowledge in the area.  

In addition to her scientific research, Dr. Grimm has spent a large part of her career focused on curriculum development and enhancement of student learning in engineering.  She established both the graduate and undergraduate programs in biomedical engineering at Wayne State.  She currently serves as a commissioner to the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET and has been a program evaluator for many years.

Dr. Grimm is a Fellow of ASME, and served as Division Chair for the Bioengineering Division of ASME from 2012 to 2013.  She has also served on the executive board of the Bioengineering Division of ASEE and has served in several leadership roles within BMES.