AFRRI’s earlier work on the biological effects of depleted uranium injury has evolved into a broad program on internal contamination with radionuclides and heavy metals. Metal alloys proposed as replacements for depleted uranium have been subjected to toxicological analysis. Research conducted at AFRRI has led to changes in DOD policy for medical management of depleted uranium and reconsideration of deployment of other specific alloys. To address internal contamination with radionuclides, AFRRI is exploring novel materials designed to remove radionuclides from the body (decorporation agents). AFRRI is also investigating the long-term health effects of depleted uranium, including the basic molecular mechanisms of these effects.