Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics

The Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics (PMB) is one of the largest departments within the School of Medicine and its standing follows from the prominence of public health in the mission of the Department of Defense. The mission of the PMB Department is "to enhance health in human populations through medical education, research, and service that support and improve programs of preventive medicine, community health, and health promotion in the uniformed services."

Sandra L. Elliott, MSA

Name: Sandra L. Elliott, MSA

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Position: USU Staff
Title: Program Manager

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Patrick Richard, PhD

Name: Patrick Richard, PhD

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Assistant Professor

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Samuel T. Olaiya, PhD, CAPT, MSC, USN

Name: Samuel T. Olaiya, PhD, CAPT, MSC, USN

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Assistant Professor

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Patrick Malone, PhD, CAPT (ret), MSC, USN

Name: Patrick Malone, PhD, CAPT (ret), MSC, USN

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Assistant Professor

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Raymond S. Crawford III, MD, MBA

Name: Raymond S. Crawford III, MD, MBA

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Assistant Professor

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Anthony R. Artino, Jr., PhD, CAPT, MSC, USN

Anthony Artino

Name: Anthony R. Artino, Jr., PhD, CAPT, MSC, USN

Department of Primary Appointment: Dept. of Medicine
Position: USU Faculty
Title: Professor and Deputy Director

Affiliated Departments: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics,

Email: (link sends e-mail)
Room: Bldg. 53, Rm. 123F

Lab Website
PubMed Listing


Curriculum Vitae

Navy Biography

Citations on Google Scholar


Anthony R. Artino, Jr. is Professor of Medicine and Deputy Director for Graduate Programs in Health Professions Education (HPE). He holds a joint appointment in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics. A graduate of the University of Connecticut with a Ph.D. in educational psychology, Dr. Artino has accrued over 22 years of experience as a Naval Officer and, more recently, as a leader in the field of medical and health professions education. As an educator, Dr. Artino mentors and teaches graduate students in the HPE degree programs. As a researcher, he is the Principal Investigator (or Associate Investigator) on several funded research projects totaling more than $8 million, and he formerly co-Directed the School of Medicine's Long-Term Career Outcome Study (LTCOS). In these research roles, Dr. Artino collaborates with teams of scientists trained in a variety of academic disciplines, including psychology, epidemiology, physiology, medicine, and English. These interdisciplinary teams study various aspects of human motivation, learning, and performance across the medical education continuum and into clinical practice. 

Dr. Artino is a Deputy Editor for the Journal of Graduate Medical Education and an Assistant Editor for Academic Medicine. He is also on the editorial boards of Military Medicine and Military Psychology. Dr. Artino publishes his work in a variety of national and international outlets, such as Academic Medicine, Medical Education, Advances in Health Sciences Education, Medical Teacher, and Military Medicine, among others. He has published more than 200 scientific articles and book chapters, and he presents regularly at national and international conferences, including annual meetings of the American Educational Research Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). In 2015, Dr. Artino was the chair of the Research in Medical Education (RIME) Program Planning Committee for the AAMC’s 2015 Medical Education Meeting and currently sits on the Medical Education Review Committee for the AAMC's annual Learn-Serve-Lead meeting. 

Dr. Artino is a fellow of AMEE and has been honored for his professional contributions with several international awards, including the Arthur Melton Early Career Award from Division 19 (Military Psychology) of the American Psychological Association, and the Established Investigator Award and Best Journal Article Award (x2) from Division I (Education in the Professions) of the American Educational Research Association. 

Research Interests

Dr. Artino’s program of research focuses on two interrelated goals: scientific understanding of teaching, learning, and assessment processes, and the development of practical applications to improve medical education. Thus, his research is guided by the principle that theory and research should work in synergy with educational practice, with each informing and improving the other. To this end, his research team employs social-cognitive views of motivation, emotion, and behavior to better understand how medical students learn across the educational continuum. Such an understanding is critical to the development of individualized instruction and feedback for trainees. In his most recent work, he led a multidisciplinary team of researchers through a series of studies designed to assess students’ motivational beliefs, achievement emotions, and use of learning strategies in medical school. This work confirmed several hypotheses, including the notion that medical students’ perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors and achievement, and that these perceptions change considerably from matriculation to graduation. These findings have implications for instructional best practices that support and scaffold adaptive learning behaviors. Dr. Artino’s team is currently designing future intervention studies to test the efficacy of such practices.  

A secondary focus of Dr. Artino’s research has been the study of long-term outcomes. From 2009 to 2016, he co-directed the University’s LTCOS with Dr. Steven Durning. The purpose of the LTCOS is to collect and analyze a variety of quantitative and qualitative data before, during, and after medical school so that USU can more effectively evaluate the success of its graduates and educational programs. In just six years, the LTCOS team of more than a dozen multidisciplinary scholars presented 25 research abstracts at scientific conferences and published 80 peer-reviewed journal articles. More importantly, the work of the LTCOS has energized USU’s programmatic evaluation and student assessment efforts, transforming the institution into a leader in longitudinal evaluation and assessment that span the medical education continuum.

In addition to these two lines of inquiry, Dr. Artino also helps medical educators design effective questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely used in medical education research; unfortunately, many researchers fail to use evidence-based best practices when designing questionnaires. As a result, poorly designed questionnaires pervade the medical education literature. To address this problem, Dr. Artino has published several papers and guides that hone previously developed techniques and synthesize them into a new, cohesive, survey-design process. Importantly, this process mitigates several of the biggest problems with surveys, thereby reducing measurement error and improving data quality. 


  • Ph.D., Educational Psychology, University of Connecticut
  • M.S., Instructional Systems, Florida State University
  • M.S., Physiology, Colorado State University
  • B.S., Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


  • Survey Design, USU
  • Theory to Practice in HPE I: Learning Theories, USU
  • Learning: Its Implications for Education, University of Connecticut
  • Measurement and Assessment, University of Cincinnati 

Areas of Expertise

  • Academic Motivation & Emotion
  • Survey Methodology
  • Self-Regulated Learning (SRL)
  • SRL Microanalytic Assessment Techniques
  • Altmetrics
  • Responsible conduct of research
  • Online/Distance Learning
  • Undergraduate Medical Education
  • Long-Term Physician Outcomes 

Professional Activities

Select Publications

  1. Maggio, L. A., Leroux, T., & Artino, A. R. (2019). To tweet or not to tweet, that is the question: A randomized trial of Twitter effects in medical education. PLoS ONE, 14(10).
  2. Artino, A. R., Driessen, E. W., & Maggio, L.A. (2018). Ethical shades of gray: International frequency of scientific misconduct and questionable research practices in health professions education. Academic Medicine, 94, 76-84.
  3. Artino, A. R., & Konopasky, A. (2018). The practical value of educational theory for learning and teaching in graduate medical education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 10, 609-913.
  4. Bynum, W. E., Artino, A. R., Uijtdehaage, S., Webb, A. M., & Varpio, L. (2018). Sentinel emotional events: The triggers, nature, and effects of shame experiences in medical residents. Academic Medicine, 94, 85-93.
  5. Maggio, L. A., Artino, A. R., & Driessen, E. W. (2018). Preprints: Facilitating early discovery, access, and feedback. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7, 287-289.
  6. Maggio, L. A., Thomas, A., Chen, H. C., Ioannidis, P. A., Kanter, S. L., Norton, C., Tannery, N. H., & Artino, A. R. (2018). Examining the readiness of Best Evidence in Medical Education Guides for integration into educational practice: A meta-synthesis. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7, 292-301.
  7. Maggio, L. A., Leroux, T. C., Meyer, H., & Artino, A. R. (2018). #MedEd: Exploring the relationship between altmetrics and traditional measures of dissemination in health professions education. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7, 239-247.
  8. Maggio, L. A., & Artino, A. R. (2018). Rip Out: Staying up to date and managing information overload. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 10. 597-598.
  9. Bynum, W. E., & Artino, A. R. (2018). Who am I, and who do I strive to be? Applying a theory of self-conscious emotions to medical education. Academic Medicine, 93, 874-880.
  10. Artino, A. R., Durning, S. J., & Sklar, D. P. (2018). Guidlines for reporting survey-based research submitted to Academic MedicineAcademic Medicine. 93, 337-340.
  11. Gehlbach, H., & Artino, A. R. (2018). The survey checklist (manifesto). Academic Medicine, 93, 360-366.
  12. Artino, A. R., Phillips, A. W., Utrankar, A., Ta, A. Q., & Durning, S. J. (2018). The questions shape the answers: Assessing the quality of published survey instruments in health professions educationAcademic Medicine. 93, 456-463.
  13. Maggio, L. A., Artino, A. R., Picho, K., & Driessen, E. (2018). Are you sure you want to do that? The responsible conduct of research in medical education research. Academic Medicine, 93, 544-549.
  14. Cook, D. A., Castillo, R. M., Gas, B., & Artino, A. R. (2017). Measuring achievement goal motivation, mindsets, and cognitive load: Validation of three instruments’ scores. Medical Education, 51, 1061-1074.
  15. Maggio, L. A., Meyer, H., & Artino, A. R. (2017). Beyond citation rates: Real-time impact analysis of health professions education research via altmetrics. Academic Medicine, 92, 1449-1455.
  16. Meyer, H., Artino, A. R., & Maggio, L.A. (2017). AM Last Page: Tracking the scholarly conversation in health professions education: An introduction to altmetrics. Academic Medicine,92, 1501.
  17. Larsen, D. P., Wesevich, A., Lichtenfeld, J., Artino, A. R., Brydges, R., & Varpio, L. (2017). Tying knots: An activity theory analysis of student learning goals in clinical education. Medical Education.
  18. Artino, A. R. (2017). Good decisions cannot be made from bad surveys. Military Medicine, 182, 1464-1465. 
  19. Artino, A. R. (2016). The unsuccessful treatment of a case of writer’s block: A replication in medical education. Medical Education, 50, 1262-1263.
  20. Cook, D. A., & Artino, A. R. (2016). Motivation to learn: An overview of contemporary theories. Medical Education, 50, 997-1014.
  21. Picho, K., Maggio, L. A., & Artino, A. R. (2016). Science: The slow march of accumulating evidence. Perspectives on Medical Education, 5, 350-353.
  22. Cleary, T. J., Durning, S. J., & Artino, A. R. (2016). Microanalytic assessment of self-regulated learning during clinical reasoning: Recent developments and next steps. Academic Medicine, 91, 1516-1521. 
  23. Durning, S. J., Dong, T., Ratcliffe, T. A., Schuwirth, L. W. T., Artino, A. R., Boulet, J. R., & Eva, K. (2016). Comparing open- and closed-book examinations: A systematic review. Academic Medicine, 91, 583-599.
  24. Blanco, M. A., Gruppen, L. D., Artino, A. R., Uijtdehaage, S., Szauter, K., & Durning, S. J. (2016). How to write an educational research grant: AMEE Guide No. 101. Medical Teacher, 38, 113-122.
  25. Cleary, T. J., Dong, T., & Artino, A. R. (2015). Examining shifts in medical students’ microanalytic motivation beliefs and regulatory processes during a diagnostic reasoning task. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20, 611-626.
  26. McBee, E., Ratcliffe, T. A., Picho, K., Artino, A. R., Schuwirth, L. W. T., Kelly, W., Masel, J., van der Vleuten, C. P. M., & Durning S. J. (2015). Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20, 1225-1236.
  27. Artino, A. R., West, D. C., Gusic, M. E. (2015). Forward: The more things change, the more they stay the same. Academic Medicine, 90, Si-Sii.
  28. Dong, T., La Rochelle, J. S., Durning, S. J., Saguil, A., Swygert, K. A., Hemmer, P. A., & Artino, A. R. (2015). Longitudinal effects of medical students’ communication skills on future performance. Military Medicine, 180(Suppl.), 24-30.
  29. Artino, A. R., Dong, T., Gilliland, W. R., Cruess, D., & Durning, S. J. (2015). Development and initial validation of a program director’s evaluation form for third-year residents. Military Medicine, 180(Suppl.), 104-108.
  30. Artino, A. R., Brydges, R., & Gruppen, L. D. (2015). Self-regulated learning in medical education: Theoretical perspectives and research methods. In J. Cleland & S. J. Durning (Eds.), Researching medical education (pp. 155-166). London: Wiley-Blackwell.
  31. La Rochelle, J. S., Artino, A. R., & Torre, D. M. (2015). Innovations and future directions. In R. L. Trowbridge, J. J. Rencic, & S. J. Durning (Eds.), Teaching clinical reasoning (pp. 231-251). Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.
  32. Artino, A. R., La Rochelle, J. S., DeZee, K. J., & Gehlbach, H. (2014). Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87. Medical Teacher, 36, 463-474.
  33. Artino, A. R., Cleary, T. J., Dong, T., Hemmer, P. A, & Durning, S. J. (2014). Exploring clinical reasoning in novices: A self-regulated learning microanalytic assessment approach. Medical Education, 48, 280-291.
  34. Cleary, T. J., Durning, S. J., Hemmer, P. A., Gruppen, L. D., & Artino, A. R. (2013). Self-regulated learning in medical education. In K. Walsh (Ed.), Oxford textbook of medical education (pp. 465-477). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  35. Artino, A. R., Dong, T., DeZee, K. J., Gilliland, W. R., Waechter, D. M., Cruess, D., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Achievement-goal structures and self-regulated learning: Relationships and changes in medical school. Academic Medicine, 87, 1375-1381.
  36. Artino, A. R., Gilliland, W. R., Waechter, D. M., Cruess, D., Calloway, M., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Does self-reported clinical experience predict performance in medical school and internship? Medical Education, 46, 172-178.
  37. Artino, A. R., Dong, T., DeZee, K. J., Gilliland, W. R., Waechter, D. M., Cruess, D., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Development and initial validation of a survey to assess students’ self-efficacy in medical school. Military Medicine, 177(Suppl.), 31-37.
  38. Artino, A. R., Holmboe, E., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Control-value theory: Using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64. Medical Teacher, 34, e148-e160.
  39. Artino, A. R., Durning, S. J., Waechter, D. M., Leary, K. L., & Gilliland, W. R. (2012). Perspectives: Broadening our understanding of clinical quality: From attribution error to situated cognition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 91, 167-169.
  40. Artino, A. R., Hemmer, P. A., & Durning, S. J. (2011). Using self-regulated learning theory to understand the beliefs, emotions, and behaviors of struggling medical students. Academic Medicine, 86, S35-S38.
  41. Artino, A. R., La Rochelle, J. S., & Durning, S. J. (2010). Second-year medical students’ motivational beliefs, emotions, and achievement. Medical Education, 44, 1203-1212.

Harry Haverkos, MD

Name: Harry Haverkos, MD

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Associate Professor

Email: (link sends e-mail)
Office Phone: (301) 295-3704
Room: Bldg A, Room 1039G



Harry W. Haverkos, MD, Captain (retired) U.S. Public Health Service. Dr. Haverkos is an infectious diseases physician and epidemiologist. He joined the USPHS in 1981 as an Epidemic Intelligence Officer (EIS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. At CDC he initiated national surveillance for AIDS and participated in epidemiologic studies among homosexual men, Caribbean natives, hemophiliacs and blood transfusion recipients. In 1984 he transferred to the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda and served as a medical officer at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and as a branch chief; AIDS coordinator; Acting Director, Division of Clinical Research; and intramural physician-scientist at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). For seventeen years (1989-2006) he served in the Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine at Walter Reed Army Medical Center as a physician and educator. In 1998 he transferred to the Food and Drug Administration as a Medical Reviewer in the Division of Antiviral Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Harry retired in August 2006; and served as a Special Volunteer in the Viral Epidemiology Branch at the National Cancer Institute form 2006-2009. He is currently an Associate Professor, Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland.


  • B.S. Pre-professional Studies (Science Major) University of Notre Dame, Indiana
  • M.D. Medical College of Ohio at Toledo

Areas of Expertise

  • Internal Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Epidemiology

Research Interest

  • Infectious determinant of chronic diseases
  • Active surveillance for diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cervical cancer

Selected Recent Publications

Bennett C, Kuhn AE, Haverkos HW. Human papillomavirus and tar hypothesis for squamous cell cervical cancer J Bioscience 2010; 35:331-7

Haverkos HW. Book Review: Outbreak Investigations around the World, edited by Mark S. Dworkin. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:1882.

Greenburg D, Haverkos H, Vigersky R. Diabetes mellitus, active components, U.S. Armed Forces. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. February 2009; 16 (2): 7-9.

Haverkos HW. Multifactorial etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma: a hypothesis. J Bioscience 2008; 33:643-651.

Haverkos HW. Multifactorial etiology of cervical cancer: a hypothesis. Medscape General Medicine 2005; 7(4):56.

Haverkos HW. Viruses, Chemicals and Co-carcinogenesis. Oncogene 2004; 23:6492-99.

Haverkos HW, Soon G, Steckley SL, Pickworth WB. Cigarette smoking and cervical cancer: Part 1: a meta analysis. Biomed Pharmacother 2003; 57:67-77.

Steckley SL, Pickworth WB, Haverkos HW. Cigarette smoking and cervical cancer; Part 2: a geographic variability study. Biomed Pharmacother 2003; 57:78-83.

Haverkos HW, Battula N, Drotman DP, Rennert O. Enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Biomed Pharmacother 2003; 57:379-385.

Stephanie Shao

Name: Stephanie Shao

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Biostatistician for Dr. Zhu

Email: (link sends e-mail)

Kangmin Zhu, MD, PhD, MPH

Name: Kangmin Zhu, MD, PhD, MPH

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Professor

Email: (link sends e-mail)
Office Phone: (301) 295-2398
Room: Bldg E, Room 2007







Cancer epidemiology, prevention and control


Epi 2

Areas of Expertise

Cancer epidemiology, cancer screening and detection, racial disparity, cancer in the military, epidemiological databases

Selected Recent Publications

Zhou J, Enewold L, Zahm SH, Devesa SS, Anderson WF, Potter JF, McGlynn KA, Zhu K. Melanoma Incidence Rates among Whites in the U.S. Military. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar;20(2):318-23.

Chen SL, Steele SR, Eberhardt J, Zhu K, Bilchik A, Stojadinovic A. Lymph node ratio as a quality and prognostic indicator in stage III colon cancer. Ann Surg. 2011 Jan;253(1):82-7.

Zhou J, Enewold L, Peoples GE, Clifton GT, Potter JF, Stojadinovic A, Zhu K. Trends in cancer screening among Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women, 2000-2005. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Dec;19(12):2167-74.

Enewold L, Brinton LA, McGlynn KA, Zahm SH, Potter JF, Zhu K. Oral contraceptive use among women in the military and the general U.S. population. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 May;19(5):839-45.

Pan IJ, Daniels JL, Zhu K. Poverty and childhood cancer incidence in theUnited States. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jul;21(7):1139-45.

Zhou J, Enewold L, Stojadinovic A, Clifton GT, Potter JF, Peoples GE, Zhu K. Incidence rates of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cancers in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun;21(6):853-61.

Ligong Chen, MD, MPH

Name: Ligong Chen, MD, MPH

Department of Primary Appointment: Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics
Title: Research Assistant

Email: (link sends e-mail)


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