Gary Gackstetter, D.V.M., M.P.H., Ph.D.
Gary D. Gackstetter, D.V.M., M.P.H., Ph.D.
Name: Gary D. Gackstetter, D.V.M., M.P.H., Ph.D.
Force Health Protection, Epidemiology
One Health (Human Hlth, Animal Hlth, Environmental Hlth)
1992 Ph.D. Epidemiology University of Minnesota
1985 M.P.H. Double Concentration: Boston University
1) Environmental Health
2) Epidemiology & Biostatistics
1979 D.V.M. Veterinary Medicine & Surgery Iowa State University
1975 B.S. Animal Science South Dakota State University
1974 B.S. Arts & Science South Dakota State University
Dr. Gackstetter is currently Professor and Vice Chair, Research; as well as Co-Director, Graduate Research & Practicum Programs at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, in Bethesda, Maryland. He teaches both medical and graduate students. He is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology and a board-certified preventive medicine veterinarian (DACVPM), earning a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, from Iowa State; a Master of Public Health, from Boston University; and a PhD in Epidemiology, from University of Minnesota. Since the early 1980’s, Dr. Gackstetter has been active in entry-level veterinary licensing assessments as an item writer, consultant to Professional Examination Services, Inc., and as the veterinary public health expert on the Examination Development Advisory Board of the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners (NBVME). He has also chaired the NBVME, and was the National Association of Federal Veterinarians designee for three consecutive 3-yr terms, on the new International Council for Veterinary Assessment (formerly the NBVME). Additionally, he is a current member of the Collaboration for Veterinary Assessments Governance Committee (CVAGC). A committee established as a result of the formal collaboration between the International Council for Veterinary Assessment and National Board of Medical Examiners. In 2005, he retired as a Colonel from the Air Force, after 26 years of service. His active duty assignments included operational public health positions, Associate Professor in the Biology Department at the US Air Force Academy, Chief Epidemiologist at Air Force Basic Training in San Antonio, a 3-yr Pentagon assignment in the Office of the Secretary of Defense-Health Affairs, and Director of Graduate Programs at USUHS. He has managed multi-million dollar research projects and published more than 60 scientific articles. His research interests include zoonoses, infectious disease transmission and control; biosurveillance; military force health protection; and illnesses among Gulf War veterans. From 2005-2015, Dr. Gackstetter was one of four Corporate Fellows and a Principal Scientist with Analytic Services, Inc. (ANSER). He was assigned to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Advanced & Emerging Threats Division (2008-20015), where he focused on supporting a $50M basic sciences research program in a chemical-biological defense context. Other assignments, as an Analytic Services Inc. employee, included the Office of the Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, Chemical and Biological Defense, within the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology & Logistics) at the Pentagon (2005-07), and the acting Program Manager at the National Biosurveillance Integration Center within the Department of Homeland Security (2007-08). He remains active as a collaborator and former co-investigator for the Millennium Cohort Study—a longitudinal study that began in 2001, designed to investigate health outcomes of more than 200,000 Military Service members for at least 50 years.
1. Porter CK, Welsh M, Riddle MS, Nieh C, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter G, Hooper TI. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease among participants of the Millennium Cohort: incidence, deployment-related risk factors, and antecedent episodes of infectious gastroenteritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Apr;45(8):1115-1127. doi: 10.1111/apt.13991. Epub 2017 Feb 23. PMID: 28230274
2. Riddle MS, Welsh MM, Porter CK, Nieh C, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome in the US military: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;doi :10.1038/ajg. 2015.386; published online 5 January 2016.
3. Welsh MM, Federinko SP, Burnett DG, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Wells TS, Hooper TI. Deployment-related depression screening, 2001-2008: comparing clinical versus research surveys. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Nov; 47(5):531-40. Advance Access published 2014 Sep 16. pii: S07493797(14)00403-6. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.036. Selected by editors as a Continuing Medical Education article. (Second author was graduate student)
4. Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ For the Millennium Cohort Study Team. US Naval and Marine Corps occupations, PTSD and depression risk and absenteeism. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. 2014 May 02; 29(2): 91-112. doi: 10.1080/15555240.2014.899187.
5. Smith T, Powell T, Jacobson I, Smith B, Hooper T; Boyko E, Gackstetter G. Chronic multisymptom illness:
a comparison of Iraq and Afghanistan deployers with 1991 Gulf War veterans. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Dec 15; 180(12):1176-87. Advance Access published 2014 Dec 2. doi:10.1093/aje/kwu240.
6. LeardMann CA, Powell TM, Smith TC, Bell MR, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ghamsary M, Hoge CW. Risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel. JAMA. 2013 Aug 7; 310(5):496-506. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.65164. Erratum in: JAMA. 2013 Sep 11; 310(10):1076.
7. Leardmann CA, Pietrucha A, Magruder KM, Smith B, Murdoch M, Jacobson IG, Ryan MA, Gackstetter G, Smith TC. Combat deployment is associated with sexual harassment or sexual assault in a large, female military cohort. Women’s Health Issues. 2013 Jul-Aug; 23(4):e215-23. doi: 10.1016 / j.whi.2013.05.002. Selected by editors for the 2013 Charles E. Gibbs Leadership Prize for the best paper published on Women's Health Issues.
8. Gehrman P, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ulmer CS, Smith TC. Predeployment sleep duration and insomnia symptoms as risk factors for new-onset mental health disorders following military deployment. Sleep. 2013 Jul 1; 36(7):1009-18.
9. Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MA, Wells TS, MacDermid Wadsworth S, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Prospective evaluation of mental health and deployment experience among women in the US military. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jul 15; 176(2):135-45. doi:
10.1093/aje/kwr496. Epub 2012 Jul 6.
10. Smith B, Wong CA, Boyko EJ, Phillips CJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MA, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jun; 54(6):708-16. doi: 10.1097 / JOM.0b013e31825107f9.
11. Powell TM, Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Phillips CJ, Smith B;
Prospective assessment of chronic multisymptom illness reporting possibly associated with open-air burn pit smoke exposure in Iraq. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jun; 54(6):682-8. doi: 10.1097 / JOM.0b013e318255ba39.
12. Jones KA, Smith B, Granado NS, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MA, Phillips CJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jun; 54(6):698-707. doi:
10.1097 / JOM.0b013e3182529799.
13. Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Horton JL, Powell TM, Leardmann CA, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed U.S. military service members: prospective cohort study. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 200(4):317-23. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096552. Epub 2012 Feb 23.
14. Wells TS, Ryan MA, Jones KA, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD. A comparison of mental health outcomes in persons entering U.S. military service before and after September 11, 2001. J Trauma Stress. 2012 Feb; 25(1):17-24. doi: 10.1002/jts.21657.
15. Jones KA, Granado NS, Smith B, Slymen DJ, Ryan MA, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Phillips CJ, Smith TC. A prospective study of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment in support of Iraq and Afghanistan: the millennium cohort study. Autoimmune Dis. 2011; 2011:741267. doi:
10.4061/2011/741267. Epub 2011 Nov 14.
16. Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members. Addiction. 2012 May; 107(5):983-94. doi:
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03737.x. Epub 2012 Jan 23.
17. Pinder RJ, Greenberg N, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Murphy D, Ryan MA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Wessely S. Profile of two cohorts: UK and US prospective studies of military health. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct; 41(5):1272-82. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr096. Epub 2011 Jun 29. No abstract available.
18. Jankosky CJ, Hooper TI, Granado NS, Scher A, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Headache disorders in the millennium cohort: epidemiology and relations with combat deployment. Headache. 2011 Jul-Aug; 51(7):1098-111. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.01914.x. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
19. Sandweiss DA, Slymen DJ, Leardmann CA, Smith B, White MR, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Preinjury psychiatric status, injury severity, and postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 May; 68(5):496-504. doi:
20. Murdoch M, Pryor JB, Griffin JM, Ripley DC, Gackstetter GD, Polusny MA, Hodges JS. Unreliability and error in the military's "gold standard" measure of sexual harassment by education and gender. J Trauma Dissociation. 2011; 12(3):216-31. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2011.551506.
21. White MR, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Wells TS, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Health care utilization among complementary and alternative medicine users in a large military cohort. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Apr 11; 11:27. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-27.
22. Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Leardmann CA, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Gray GC, Riddle JR, Ryan MA; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008. BMC Public Health. 2011 Jan 31; 11:69. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-69.
23. Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gehrman P, Macera CA, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Sleep patterns before, during, and after deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. Sleep. 2010 Dec; 33(12):1615-22.
24. Murdoch M, Pryor JB, Polusny MA, Wall MM, Ripley DC, Gackstetter GD. The association between military sexual stress and psychiatric symptoms after controlling for other stressors. J Psychiatr Res. 2010 Dec; 44(16):1129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.09.009.
25. Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Horton J, Gackstetter GD, Smith B, Hooper T, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study. Assessing nonresponse bias at follow-up in a large prospective cohort of relatively young and mobile military service members. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010 Oct 21; 10:99. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-99.
26. Kelton ML, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Bliese PD, Hoge CW, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010 Oct 15; 10:94. doi: 10.1186/1471-228810-94.
27. Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Leardmann CA, Boyko EJ, Pearse LA, Smith B, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of mortality data sources. Popul Health Metr. 2010 May 24; 8:15. doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-8-15.
28. Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Ryan MA, Hooper TI, Amoroso PJ, Gackstetter GD, Barrett-Connor E, Smith TC; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Risk of diabetes in U.S. military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug; 33(8):1771-7. doi: 10.2337/dc10-0296. Epub 2010 May 18.
29. Murdoch M, Pryor JB, Polusny MA, Gackstetter GD, Ripley DC. Local social norms and military sexual stressors: do senior officers' norms matter? Mil Med. 2009 Oct; 174(10):1100-4.
30. Smith B, Wong CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD; Margaret A. K. Ryan for the Millennium Cohort Study Team. Newly reported respiratory symptoms and conditions among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a prospective population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec 1; 170(11):143342. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp287. Epub 2009 Oct 22.
31. Jacobson IG, White MR, Smith TC, Smith B, Wells TS, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Self-reported health symptoms and conditions among complementary and alternative medicine users in a large military cohort. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Sep; 19(9):613-22. doi: 10.1016 / j.annepidem.2009.05.001. Epub 2009 Jul 12.
32. Smith TC, Ryan MA, Smith B, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Re: "Psychiatric diagnoses in historic and contemporary military cohorts: combat deployment and the healthy warrior effect". Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Nov 1; 168(9):1094-5; author reply 1096-8. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn262. Epub 2008 Sep 5. No abstract available.
33. Jacobson IG, Ryan MA, Hooper TI, Smith TC, Amoroso PJ, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Bell NS. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. JAMA. 2008 Aug 13; 300(6):663-75. doi: 10.1001/jama.300.6.663.
34. Smith B, Chu LK, Smith TC, Amoroso PJ, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MA; Millennium Cohort Study Team. Challenges of self-reported medical conditions and electronic medical records among members of a large military cohort. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008 Jun 5; 8:37. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-8-37
35. Hooper TI, DeBakey SF, Bellis KS, Cox KL, Gackstetter GD. The Joint Medical Workstation (JMeWS) database in 2003: intradeployment health encounters of military personnel supporting Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Mil Med. 2008 Feb; 173(2):119-28.
36. Hooper TI, Debakey SF, Nagaraj BE, Bellis KS, Smith B, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD. The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994-2004. BMC Public Health. 2008 Feb 13; 8:60. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-60.
37. Murdoch M, Pryor JB, Polusny MA, Gackstetter GD. Functioning and psychiatric symptoms among military men and women exposed to sexual stressors. Mil Med. 2007 Jul; 172(7):718-25.
38. Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells TS, Gumbs G, Corbeil TE, Hooper TI. Millennium Cohort: enrollment begins a 21-year contribution to understanding the impact of military service. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007 Feb; 60(2):181-91. Epub 2006 Sep 28.
39. Vasterling JJ, Proctor SP, Amoroso P, Kane R, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MA, Friedman MJ. The
Neurocognition Deployment Health Study: a prospective cohort study of Army Soldiers. Mil Med. 2006 Mar; 171(3):253-60.
40. Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, DeBakey SF, Johnson A, Nagaraj BE, Heller JM, Kang HK. Fatal motor vehicle crashes among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War and exposure to munitions demolitions at Khamisiyah: a nested case-control study. Am J Ind Med. 2006 Apr; 49(4):261-70.
41. Lincoln AE, Hooper TI, Kang HK, Debakey SF, Cowan DN, Gackstetter GD. Motor vehicle fatalities among Gulf War era veterans: characteristics, mechanisms, and circumstances. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006 Mar; 7(1):31-7.
42. Hooper TI, Debakey SF, Bellis KS, Kang HK, Cowan DN, Lincoln AE, Gackstetter GD. Understanding the effect of deployment on the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes: a nested case-control study of fatalities in Gulf War era veterans, 1991-1995. Accid Anal Prev. 2006 May; 38(3):518-25. Epub 2006 Jan 6.
43. Hooper TI, DeBakey SF, Lincoln A, Kang HK, Cowan DN, Gackstetter GD. Leveraging existing databases to study vehicle crashes in a combat occupational cohort: epidemiologic methods. Am J Ind Med. 2005 Aug; 48(2):118-27.
44. Harman DR, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD. Aeromedical evacuations from Operation Iraqi Freedom: a descriptive study. Mil Med. 2005 Jun; 170(6):521-7. (First author was graduate student in Occupational and Environmental Residency program)
45. Hooper TI, Smith TC, Gray GC, Al Qahtani MS, Memish ZA, Barrett DH, Schlangen KM, Cruess DF, Ryan MA, Gackstetter GD. Saudi Arabia-United States collaboration in health research: a formula for success. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Apr; 33(3):192-6.
46. Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Al Qahtani MS, Smith TC, Memish ZA, Schlangen KM, Cruess DF, Barrett DH, Ryan MA, Gray GC. Assessing the potential health impact of the 1991 Gulf War on Saudi Arabian National Guard soldiers. Int J Epidemiol. 2005 Aug; 34(4):801-8. Epub 2005 Feb 28.
47. Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Kang HK, Graham JT, Scott KC. After more than 10 years of Gulf War veteran medical evaluations, what have we learned? Am J Prev Med. 2004 Jun; 26(5):443-52. Review.
48. Smith TC, Jimenez DL, Smith B, Gray GC, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Heller JM, Dalager NA, Kang HK, Hyams KC, Ryan MA. The postwar hospitalization experience of Gulf War veterans participating in U.S. health registries. J Occup Environ Med. 2004 Apr; 46(4):386-97.
49. Stetto JE, Gackstetter GD, Cruess DF, Hooper TI. Variables associated with attrition from Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Medical School. Mil Med. 2004 Feb; 169(2):102-7. (First author was graduate student)
50. Hoe NP, Fullerton KE, Liu M, Peters JE, Gackstetter GD, Adams GJ, Musser JM. Molecular genetic analysis of 675 group A streptococcus isolates collected in a carrier study at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep 15; 188(6):818-27. Epub 2003 Sep 4.
51. Gardner JW, Gibbons RV, Hooper TI, Cunnion SO, Kroenke K, Gackstetter GD. Identifying new diseases and their causes: the dilemma of illnesses in Gulf War veterans. Mil Med. 2003 Mar; 168(3):186-93.
52. Ryan MA, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gary GC, Hooper TI, Riddle JR. The Millennium Cohort Study. Mil Med. 2002 Nov; 167(11):ii. No abstract available.
53. Smith TC, Smith B, Ryan MA, Gray GC, Hooper TI, Heller JM, Dalager NA, Kang HK, Gackstetter GD. Ten years and 100,000 participants later: occupational and other factors influencing participation in US Gulf War health registries. J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Aug; 44(8):758-68.
54. Kasowski EJ, Gackstetter GD, Sharp TW. Foodborne illness: new developments concerning an old problem. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002 Aug; 4(4):308-18. Review. (First author was graduate student in General Preventive Medicine Residency program)
55. Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MA, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Riddle JR; Millennium Cohort Study Group. The Millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel. Mil Med. 2002 Jun; 167(6):483-8.
56. Smith TC, Heller JM, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Gray GC. Are Gulf War veterans experiencing illness due to exposure to smoke from Kuwaiti oil well fires? Examination of Department of Defense hospitalization data. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 May 15; 155(10):908-17.
57. Gray GC, Schultz RG, Gackstetter GD, McKeehan JA, Aldridge KV, Hudspeth MK, Malasig MD, Fuller JM, McBride WZ. Prospective study of respiratory infections at the U.S. Naval Academy. Mil Med. 2001 Sep; 166(9):759-63.
58. Gray GC, Blankenship TL, Gackstetter G. History of respiratory illness at the U.S. Naval Academy. Mil Med. 2001 Jul; 166(7):581-6.
59. Gardner JW, Cozzini CB, Kelley PW, Kark JA, Peterson MR, Gackstetter GD, Spencer JD. The Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry. Mil Med. 2000 Jul; 165(7 Suppl 2):57-61.
60. Peters JE, Gackstetter GD. Streptococcus pyogenes transmission among Air Force recruits: efficacy of surveillance and prophylaxis protocols. Mil Med. 1998 Oct; 163(10):667-71.
61. Gray GC, Hawksworth AW, Smith TC, Kang HK, Knoke JD, Gackstetter GD. Gulf War Veterans' Health Registries. Who is most likely to seek evaluation? Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Aug 15; 148(4):343-9.
62. Williams L, Gackstetter G, Fiedler E, Hermesch C, Lando H. Prevalence of tobacco use among first-term Air Force personnel before and after basic military training. Mil Med. 1996 Jun; 161(6):318-23.
63. Chin DL, Blackswood GV, Gackstetter GD. Ergometry as a predictor of basic military training success. Mil Med. 1996 Feb; 161(2):75-7.
64. Musser JM, Kapur V, Peters JE, Hendrix CW, Drehner D, Gackstetter GD, Skalka DR, Fort PL, Maffei JT, Li LL, et al. Real-time molecular epidemiologic analysis of an outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease in US Air Force trainees. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 Feb; 118(2):128-33.
1. Styles, D.K. and Gackstetter, G.D. (Copyright 2012). Chapter 7 Mass Animal Fatalities in
Response to Animal Health Emergencies: Depopulation and Disposal of Livestock. In: E.A. Gursky & M. Farinelli-Fierro, (Eds). Death in Large Numbers: The Science, Policy, and Management of Mass Fatality Events (pp. 201-220). Chicago, IL:American Medical Association. ISBN: 978-1-60359-629-9.
2. Joseph, S.C., Hyams, K.C., Gackstetter, G.D., Mathews, E.C., and Patterson, R.E. (Copyright
1998). Chapter 120 Persian Gulf War Health Issues. In: W.N. Rom (Eds). Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Ed (pp. 1595-1610). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott - Raven ISBN: 0-316-75578-8.
- Peer-Reviewed Publications 60+