SC2I Publications

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SC2i is dedicated to making concrete contributions to critical care medicine. One important method of doing so is by sharing our research through quality peer-reviewed journals.



Darrabie M, Cheeseman J, Limkakeng A, Borawski J, Sullenger B, Elster E, Kirk A, Lee J. Toll-like receptor activation as a biomarker in traumatically injured patients. J Surg Res. 2018 Nov. 231: p. 270-277Pubmed id: 30278940.
Potter B, Forsberg J, Silvius E, Wagner M, Khatri V, Schobel S, Belard A, Weintrob A, Tribble D, Elster E. Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Infections: Development of a Clinically Applicable Clinical Decision Support System for Early Risk Stratification. Mil Med. 2018 Aug 14. Pubmed id: 30124943.
Belard A, Schobel S, Bradley M, Potter B, Dente C, Buchman T, Kirk A, Elster E. Battlefield to Bedside: Bringing Precision Medicine to Surgical Care. J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Jun. 226(6): p.1093-1102Pubmed id: 29653881.
Nemati S, Holder A, Razmi F, Stanley M, Clifford G, Buchman T. An Interpretable Machine Learning Model for Accurate Prediction of Sepsis in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr. 46(4): p. 547-553Pubmed id: 29286945.
Belard A, Buchman T, Dente C, Potter B, Kirk A, Elster E. The Uniformed Services University’s Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i): Bringing Precision Medicine to the Critically Ill Military Medicine. 2018 Apr. 183 p. 487-495Pubmed id: 29635571.



Dente C, Bradley M, Schobel S, Gaucher B, Buchman T, Kirk A, Elster E.. Towards precision medicine: Accurate predictive modeling of infectious complications in combat casualties. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Oct. 83(4): p. 609-616Pubmed id: 28538622.
Chang F, Dente C, Elster E. Measuring the Impact of a Big Data Decision Support Tool on Military Logistics: Medical Analytics Meets the Mission. Defense Acquisition and Research Journal. 2017 Jul. 24
Lee J, Jackman J, Kwun J, Manook M, Moreno A, Elster E, Kirk A, Leong K, Sullenger B.Nucleic acid scavenging microfiber mesh inhibits trauma-induced inflammation and thrombosis Biomaterials. 2017 Mar. 120 p. 94-102Pubmed id: 28049065.
Rothberg P, Bailey J, Elster E, Bradley M. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury Patterns: A Review of Current Management and Outcome Literature. International Review of the Armed Forces Medical Services. 2017. 90(1).



Lisboa F, Bradley M, Hueman M, Schobel S, Gaucher B, Styrmisdottir E, Potter B, Forsberg J, Elster E. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs May Affect Cytokine Response and Benefit Healing of Combat-Related Extremity Wounds. Surgery. 2016 Dec 3. 161(4): p. 1164-1173Pubmed id: 27919449.
Buchman, T, Billiar T, Elster E, Kirk A, Rimavi R, Vodovotz Y, Zehnbauer B. Precision Medicine for Critical Illness and Injury. Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep. 44(9): p. 1635-8Pubmed id: 27525993.
Belard A, Buchman T, Forsberg J, Potter B, Dente C, Kirk A, Elster E. Precision Diagnosis: a View of the Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) Landscape Through the Lens of Critical Care. J Clin Monit Comput. 2016 Feb 22. 31(2): p. 261-271Pubmed id: 26902081.



Radowsky J, Brown T, Lisboa F, Rodriguez C, Forsberg J, Elster E. Serum Inflammatory Cytokine Markers of Invasive Fungal Infection in Previously Immunocompetent Battle Casualties. Surg Infect. 2015 Sep. 16(5): p.526-32. Pubmed id: 26110227.
Forsberg J, Potter B, Wagner M, Vickers A, Dente C, Kirk A, Elster E. Lessons of War: Turning Data Into Decisions. EBioMedicine. 2015 Jul 17. 2(9): p. 1235-42. Pubmed id: 26501123.



Bevevino A, Dickens J, Potter B, Dworak T, Gordon W, Forsberg J. A Model to Predict Limb Salvage in Severe Combat-related Open Calcaneus Fractures Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Nov 19. 472(10): p. 3002-9. Pubmed id: 24249536.
Be N, Allen J, Brown T, Gardner S, McLoughlin K, Forsberg J, Kirkup B, Chromy B, Luciw P, Elster E, Jaing C. Microbial profiling of combat wound infection through detection microarray and next-generation sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 May 14. 52(7): p.2583-94. Pubmed id: 24829242.
Forsberg J, Potter B, Potter E, Safford S, Elster E. Do Inflammatory Markers Portend Heterotopic Ossification and Wound Failure in Combat Wounds? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 May 31. 472(9): p 2845-54. Pubmed id: 24879568.
Bell J, Wolf E, Schnall B, Tis J, Potter B. Transfemoral Amputations: Is There an Effect of Residual Limb Length and Orientation on Energy Expenditure? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Apr 22. 472(10): p. 3055-61. Pubmed id: 24752912.
Polfer E, Hoyt B, Senchak L, Murphey M, Forsberg J, Potter B. Fluid Collections in Amputations Are Not Indicative or Predictive of Infection. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Apr 2.472(10): p. 2978-83. Pubmed id: 24691841.
Evans K, Potter B, Brown T, Davis T, Elster E, Forsberg J. Osteogenic gene expression correlates with development of heterotopic ossification in war wounds. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Feb.472(2): p. 396-404Pubmed id: 24136804.
Chromy B, Eldridge A, Forsberg J, Brown T, Kirkup B, Elster E, Luciw P. Proteomic sample preparation for blast wound characterization. Proteome Sci. 2014 Feb. 12(1): p. 10. Pubmed id: 24529238.



McBeth P, Crawford I, Tiruta C, Xiao Z, Ahu G, Shuster M, Sewell L, Panebianco N, Lautner D, Nicolaou S, Ball C, Blaivas M, Dente C, Wyrzkowski A, Kirkpatrick A. Help is in your pocket: the potential accuracy of smartphone-and laptop based remotely guided resuscitative telesonography. Telemed J E Health. 2013 Dec. 19(12): p. 924-30. Pubmed id: 24138615.
Crane N, Polfer E, Elster E, Potter B, Forsberg J. Raman spectroscopic analysis of combat-related heterotopic ossification development. Bone. 2013 Dec. 57(2): p. 335-42. Pubmed id: 24012700.
Chromy B, Eldridge A, Forsberg J, Brown T, Kirkup B, Jaing C, Be N, Elster E, Luciw P. Wound outcome in combat injuries is associated with a unique set of protein biomarkers. J Transl Med. 2013 Nov. 11(1): p. 281Pubmed id: 24192341.
Ball C, Dente C, Kirkpatrick A, Wyrzkowski A, Williams B, Nicholas J, Shaz B, Laupland K, Vercruysse G, Salomone J, Dixon E, Rozycki G, Feliciano D. The impact of a mature massive transfusion protocol (1:1:1) on major hepatic injuries: does it increase abdominal closure rates? Can J Surg. 2013 Oct. 56(5): p. 128-34. Pubmed id: 24067528.
Mina M, Winkler A, Dente CJ. Let technology do the work: improving prediction of massive transfusion with the aid of a smartphone app. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Oct. 75(4): p. 669-75. Pubmed id: 24064881.
Zink J, Morse B, Vercruysse G, Dente C, Jones Y. Remote group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal fascitis and myositis: a rare complication from hematogenous spread of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am Surg. 2013 Sep. 79(9): p. 296-7. Pubmed id: 24069966.
Elster E, Butler F, Rasmussen T. Implications of combat casualty care for mass casualty events. JAMA. 2013 Aug. 310(5): p. 475-6. Pubmed id: 23925612.
Lisboa F, Forsberg J, Brown T, Gage F, Potter B, Elster E. Bilateral lower-extremity amputation wounds are associated with distinct local and systemic cytokine response. Surgery. 2013 Aug. 154(2): p. 282. Pubmed id: 23889954.
Anam K, Lazdun Y, Davis P, Banas R, Elster E, Davis T. Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells support allograft tolerance induction. Am J Transplant. 2013 Jun. 13(6): p. 1416-28. Pubmed id: 23651511.
Bevevino AJ, Dickens JF, Potter BK, Dworak T, Gordon W, Forsberg JA. A Model to Predict Limb Salvage in Severe Combat-related Open Calcaneus Fractures Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013 Nov 19.



Goldberg S, , Anand R, Como J, Dechert T, Dente C, Luchette F, Ivatury R, Duane T. Prophylactic antibiotic use in penetrating abdominal trauma: an eastern association for the surgery of trauma practice management guideline. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Nov. 73(5 Supp 4): p. 321-5. Pubmed id: 23114488.
Evans K, Forsberg J, Potter B, Hawksworth J, Brown T, Andersen R, Dunne J, Tadaki D, Elster E. Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression is associated with heterotopic ossification in high-energy penetrating war injuries. J Orthop Trauma. 2012 Nov. 26(11): p. 204-13. Pubmed id: 22588530.
Benfield R, Mamczak C, Vo K, Smith T, Osborne L, Sheppard F, Elster E. Initial predictors associated with outcome in injured multiple traumatic limb amputations: a Kandahar-based combat hospital experience. J Orthop Trauma. 2012 Oct. 43(10): p. 1753-8. Pubmed id: 22840556.
Hawksworth J, Graybill C, Gillern S, Brown T, Wallace S, Davis T, Elster E, Tadaki DLymphocyte depletion in experimental hemorrhagic shock in swine. J Inflamm (Lond). 2012 Sep. 9(1): p.34Pubmed id: 23009382.
Watkins C, Feingold P, Hashimoto B, Johnson L, Dente C. Nocturnal violence: implications for resident trauma operative experiences. Am Surg. 2012 Jun. 78(6): p. 657-62. Pubmed id: 22643260.
Morse B, Dente C, Hodgman E, Shaz B, Winkler A, Nicholas J, Wyrzkowski A, Rozycki G, Feliciano D. Outcomes after massive transfusion in non-trauma patients in the era of damage control resuscitation. Am Surg. 2012 Jun. 78(6): p. 679-84. Pubmed id: 22643264.
Michetti C, Fakhry S, Ferguson P, Dente C, Skeete D. Ventilator associated pneumonia rates at major trauma centers compared with a national benchmark: a multi-institutional study of the AAST. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 May. 72(5): p. 1165-73. Pubmed id: 22673241.
Hawksworth J, Graybill J, Brown T, Wallace S, Davis T, Tadaki D, Elster E. Lymphocyte modulation with FTY720 improves hemorrhagic shock survival in swine. PLos One. 2012 Apr. 7(4). Pubmed id: 22558085.
Hodgman E, Morse B, Dente C, Mina M, Shaz B, Nicholas J, Wyrzykowski A, Salomone J, Rozycki G, Felician D. Base deficit as a marker of survival after traumatic injury: consistent across changing patient populations and resuscitation paradigms. J Trauma Acute Care. 2012 Apr. 72(4): p.844-51. Pubmed id: 22491595.
Crane N, Elster E. Vibrational spectroscopy: a tool being developed for the noninvasive monitoring of wound healing. J Biomed Opt. 2012 Jan. 17(1). Pubmed id: 22352634.
Mamczak C, Elster E. Complex dismounted IED blast injuries: the initial management of bilateral lower extremity amputations with and without pelvic and perineal involvement. J Surg Orthop. 2012. 21(1): p. 14-Aug. Pubmed id: 22381505.
Brown T, Elster E, Stevens K, Graybill J, Gillern S, Phinney S, Salifu M, Jindal R. Bayesian modeling of pretransplant variables accurately predicts kidney graft survival. Am J Nephrol. 2012. 36(6): p. 561-9. Pubmed id: 23221105.
Alfieri K, Elster E, Dunne J. Resuscitation and blood utilization guidelines for the multiply injured, multiple amputee. J Surg Orthop. 2012. 21(1): p. 15-21. Pubmed id: 22381506.



Gillern S, Sheppard F, Evans K, Graybill J, Gage F, Forsberg J, Dunne J, Tadaki D, Elster EIncidence of pulmonary embolus in combat casualties with extremity amputations and fractures. J Trauma. 2011 Sep. 71(3): p. 607-12. Pubmed id: 21908998.
Morse B, Dente C, Hodgman E, Shaz B, Nicholas J, Wyrzykowski A, Salomone J, Vercruysse G, Rozycki G, Feliciano D. The effects of protocolized use of recombinant factor vlla within a massive transfusion protocol in a civilian level 1 trauma center. Am Surg. 2011 Aug. 77(8): p. 1043-9.
Davis T, O'Brien F, Anam K, Grijalva S, Potter B, Elster E. Heterotopic ossification in complex orthopaedic combat wounds: quantification and characterization of osteogenic precursor cell activity in traumatized muscle. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Jun. 93(12): p. 1122-31. Pubmed id: 21776549.
Cannon J, Zonies D, Benfield R, Elster E, Wanek S. Advanced en-route critical care during combat operations. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2011 May. 96(5): p. 21-9. Pubmed id: 22312820.
Ball C, Salomone J, Shaz B, Dente C, Tallah C, Anderson K, Rozyci G, Feliciano DUncrossmatched Blood transfusion for trauma patients in the emergency department: incidence, outcomes and recommendations. Can J Surg. 2011 Apr. 54(2): p. 115-5. Pubmed id: 21251416.
Dente C, Feliciano D. Torso vascular trauma in an urban level-1 trauma center. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2011 Mar. 23(1): p. 36-46.
Hahm G, Glaser J, Elster E. Biomarkers to predict wound healing: the future of complex war wound management. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Jan. 127(Suppl): p. 21S-26SPubmed id: 21200268.
Stojadinovic A, Kyle Potter B, Eberhardt J, Shawen S, Andersen R, Forsberg J, Shwery C, Elster E, Schaden W. Development of a prognostic naive bayesian classifier for successful treatment of nonunions. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Jan. 93(2): p. 187-94. Pubmed id: 21248216.
Crane N, O'Brien F, Forsberg J, Potter B, Elster E. Developing a toolbox for analysis of warrior wound biopsies: vibrational spectroscopy. Proc SPIE. 2011.
Brown T, Hawksworth J, Sheppard F, Tadaki D, Elster E. The inflammatory response in combat wounds is associated with critical colonization. Surg Infection. 2011. Pubmed id: 21936666.
Gillern S, Evans K, Graybill J, Forsberg J, Dunne J, Tadaki D, Stojadinovic A, Elster E. Incidence of pulmonary embolus in patients with high energy wartime extremity wounds. J Trauma. 2011.
Hwang P, Porterfield N, Pannell D, Davis T, Elster E. Trauma is Danger. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2011. 9(92). Pubmed id: 21676213.



Potter B, Forsberg J, Davis T, Evans K, Hawksworth J, Tadaki D, Brown T, Crane N, Burns T, O'Brien F, Elster E. Heterotopic ossification following combat-related trauma. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Dec. 92(Suppl 2): p. 74-89. Pubmed id: 21123594.
Ball C, Navsaria P, Kirkpatrick A, Vercler C, Dixon E, Zink J, Laupland KB, Lowe M, Salomone J, Dente C, Wyrykowski A, Hameed S, Widder S, Inaba K, Ball J, Rozycki G, Montgomery S, Hayward T, Feliciano D. The Impact of country and culture of end-of-life care for injured patients: results of an international survey. J Trauma. 2010 Dec. 69(6): p. 1323-34. Pubmed id: 21045742.
Hurst F, Jindal R, Graham L, Falta E, Elster E, Stackhouse G, Agodoa L, Lentine K, Salifu M, Abbott K. Incidence, predictors, costs, and outcome of renal cell carcinoma after kidney transplantation: USRDS experience. Transplantation. 2010 Oct. 90(8): p. 898-904. Pubmed id: 21248500.
Sheppard F, Keiser P, Craft D, Gage F, Robson M, Brown T, Petersen K, Sincock S, Kasper M, Hawksworth J, Tadaki D, Davis T, Stojadinovic A, Elster E. The majority of U.S. combat casualty soft tissue wounds are not infected or colonized upon arrival or during treatment at a continental United States military medical facility. Am J Surg. 2010 Oct. 200(4): p. 489-95Pubmed id: 20887842.
Elster E, Hawksworth J, Chang O, Leeser D, Ring M, Tadaki D, Kleiner D, Brown T, Mannon RProbabilistic (Bayesian) modeling of gene expression in transplant glomerulopathy. J Mol Diagn. 2010 Sep. 12(5): p. 653-63Pubmed id: 20688906.
Ball C, Dente C, Kirkpatrick A, Shah A, Rajani R, Wyrzkowski A, Vercruysse G, Rozycki G, Nicholas J, Salomone J, Feliciano D. Occult pneumothoraces in victims of penetrating trauma: does mechanism matter? Can J Surg. 2010 Aug. 53(4): p. 251-5.
Brown T, Safford S, Caramanica J, Elster E. Biomarker use in tailored combat casualty care. Biomark Med. 2010 Jun. 4(3): p. 465-73Pubmed id: 20550480.
Crane N, Brown T, Evans K, Hawksworth J, Hussey S, Tadaki D, Elster E. Monitoring the healing of combat wounds using raman spectroscopic mapping. Wound Repair Regen. 2010 Jun. Pubmed id: 20546554.
Ball C, Wyryzkowski A, Kirkpatrick A, Dente C, Nicholas J, Salomone J, Rozycki G, Kortbeek J, Feliciano D. Thoracic needle decompression for tension pneumothoraces: clinical correlation with catheter length. Can J Surg. 2010 Jun. 53(3): p. 184-8.
Sullivan P, Dente C, Patel S, Carmichael M, Srinivasan J, Wyrzkowski A, Nicholas J, Salomone J, Ingram W, Vercruysse G, Rozcyki G, Feliciano D. Outcome of ligation of the inferior vena cava in the modern era. Am J Surg. 2010 Apr. 199(4): p. 500-6. Pubmed id: 20074694.
Dente C, Shaz B, Nicholas J, Harris R, Wyrzykowski A, Ficke B, Vercruysse G, Feliciano D, Rozycki G, Salomone J, Ingram W. Early predictors of Massive Transfusion in Patients Sustaining Torso Gunshot Wounds in A Civilian Level I Trauma Center. J Trauma. 2010 Feb. 68(2): p. 298-304. Pubmed id: 20154541.
Shaz B, Dente C, Nicholas J, Macleod JB, Young A, Easley K, Ling Q, Harris R, Hillyer CIncreased number of coagulation products in relationship to red blood cell products transfused improves mortality in trauma patients. Transfusion. 2010 Feb. 50(2): p. 493-500. Pubmed id: 19804568.
Stojadinovic A, Eberhardt J, Brown T, Hawksworth J, Gage F, Tadaki D, Forsberg J, Davis T, Potter B, Dunne J, Elster E. Development of a bayesian model to estimate health care outcomes in severely wounded. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 2010. 2010(3): p. 125-35. Pubmed id: 21197361.



Hawksworth J, Stojadinovic A, Gage F, Tadaki D, Perdue P, Forsberg J, Davis T, Dunne J, Denobile J, Brown T, Elster E. Inflammatory biomarkers in combat wound healing. Ann Surg. 2009 Dec. 250(6): p. 1002-7.
Utz E, Elster E, Tadaki D, Gage F, Perdue P, Stojadinovic A, Hawksworth J, Brown T. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression is associated with wound failure in traumatic war injuries. J Surg Res. 2009 Sep. Pubmed id: 20056248.
Dunne J, Hawksworth J, Stojadinovic A, Gage F, Tadaki D, Perdue P, Forsberg J, Elster EPerioperative blood transfusions in combat casualties: a pilot study. J Trauma. 2009 Apr. 66(4): p. 150-6Pubmed id: 19359959.
Forsberg J, Pepek J, Wagner S, Wilson K, Flint J, Andersen R, Tadaki D, Gage F, Stojadinovic A, Elster E. Heterotopic ossification in high-energy wartime extremity injuries, prevalence and risk factors. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009. 91(5): p. 1084-91. Pubmed id: 19411456.



Forsberg J, Elster E, Andersen R, Nylen E, Brown T, Rose M, Stojadinovic A, Becker K, McGuigan F. Correlation of procalcitonin and cytokine expression with dehiscence of wartime extremity wounds. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Mar. 90(3): p. 580-8Pubmed id: 18310708.



Kirk A, Hale D, Ford E, Kleiner D, Kampen R, Elster E, Swanson S, Cendales L, Cropper T, Hale L, Jordan S, Koussis T, Peretti J, Sloane A, Salaita C, Ring M, Chamberlain C, Mannon R. Solid Organ Transplantation at the National Institutes of Health: Development of a Research Based Transplantation Practice In: Cecka and Terasaki, editors. Clinical Transplants 2005. Los: UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory; 2006. 131-144. Pubmed id: 17424731.